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  • Hva er sammenhengen mellom livsløpsfasene i EN 15804 for byggevarer og EN 50693 for elektroniske komponenter?

    Correlation between LCA framework and EN 15804 and EN 50693 modules

    EPDs are based on LCA calculations. LCA is conducted by defining product systems as models that describe key elements of the product system i.e., extraction of raw materials, production, use, and end-of-life of the product. As required by the ISO 14040 & 14044 [1], consistency of system boundaries is important for good LCA studies. Analogously, this applies to EPDs as well.

    Depending on product type, EPDs are based on different standards and Product Category Rules (PCRs). Moreover, there are slight differences in the definitions of the life cycle stages in the standards and PCRs. For example, the general LCA framework generally categorizes life cycle stages of products into upstream[1], core[2], and downstream[3] value chain activities.  The EN 50693 standard [2] uses the manufacturing, distribution, installation, use, de-installation, and end-of-life stages. The EN 15804 Standard, on the other hand further disaggregates the life cycle stages into A1-A3, A4, A5, B1-B7, C1-C4, and D modules [3]. As a result, an appropriate correlation between the life cycle stages is essential for correctly interpreting and understanding LCA and EPD results. The correlation between the life cycle stage definitions in the general LCA framework, the EN 15804, and EN 50693 are shown in Table 1.

    Interpretation in the different standards

    The environmental impacts associated allocated to upstream processes include modules A1 and A2 in (EN 15804). This corresponds to section 4.2.4.2 parts a & b of the EN 50693.

    Whereas the Core life cycle stage corresponds to A2 in EN 15804, the core is part of the manufacturing stage in EN 50693 (section 4.2.4.2 – c & d).

    All the remaining life cycle stages are categorized as downstream, and it includes value chain activities occurring after the product exits the manufacturing facility. In the EN 15804 standard, it comprises the A4, A5, B1-B7, C1-C4, and D modules. In EN 50693, it contains the distribution, installation, use, de-installation, and end-of-life stages.

    Whereas environmental loads and benefits of the product system are aggregated into module D in the EN 15804 standard, it must be reported separately for each life cycle stage in EN 50693.

    Note

    1. Whereas results from one module can be aggregated into another, disaggregation is impossible. For example, comparing the EN 15804 and EN 50693 standards, environmental impacts from modules A1, A2, and A3 (EN 15804) can be aggregated into the manufacturing stage (of EN 50693). However, environmental impacts of the manufacturing stage (EN 50693) cannot be disaggregated into A1, A2, and A3 modules (of EN 15804).
    2. Environmental impact indicators must be determined by using the characterization factors and impact assessment methods as stated in EN 15804:2012+A2:2019.
     

    [1] Includes extraction of materials, processing of semi-finished products, and their transport to manufacturing site

    [2] Manufacturing processes (main product)

    [3] Value chain activities after the production stage e.g., transportation, use, and end-of-life

     

     

    Table 1 Correlation between LCA life cycle stages and the EN 15804 and EN 50693 standards

    LCA Life Cycle Stage

    EN 15804

    EN 50693

    Upstream

    A1

     

            Manufacturing stage

    A2

    Core

    A3

    Downstream

    A4

    Distribution stage

    A5

    Installation stage

    B1

     

     

     

             Use stage

    B2

    B3

    B4

    B5

    B6

    B7

    C1

    De-installation & End-of-life

    C2

     

              End-of-life

    C3

    C4

    D

    Must be defined, explained, and reported separately for each life cycle stage (by the LCA practitioner)

     

     

    References

    [1]        ISO 14040 & 14044, “The new international standards for life cycle assessment: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044,” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 11, no. 2. 2006. doi: 10.1065/lca2006.02.002.

    [2]        EN 50693, “Product category rules for life cycle assessments of electronic and electrical products and systems,” 2019.

    [3]        EN 15804, “EN 15804:2012 + A2:2019 - Sustainability of construction works — Environmental product declarations — Core rules for the product category of construction products,” International Standard, no. February 2012.

     

     

  • What is GWP-IOBC?

    IOBC «Instantaneous oxidation of biogenic carbon»: Reference for its origin: https://cbmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13021-019-0129-5

    The GWP-IOBC/GHG indicator includes all contribution to GWP except that emissions and uptake of  biogenic carbon, including temporary stored in products and packaging (as in Table 9 in EN 15804:2012+A2:2019), which is set to zero (i.e. direct balanced out while other biogenic substances like methane etc has a characterisation factor and therefore accounted for as greenhouse gases). This indicator is often the default in LCA-software in the past and has in the EN 15804 standardisation process been known as «+/- 1 kg biogenic CO2 = 0 kg CO2e, or just 0/0». In published standards, it is described as type 2 in EN 16760.

  • Kan jeg bruke EPDer selv om jeg ikke er EPD eier?

    Ja, alle kan i prinsippet benytte EPDer, men det er noen regler som må følges. Se General Program Instructions, kapitel 2.1.8

  • Jeg har funnet et PCR-dokument fra et annet EPD-program som jeg ønsker å benytte.

    Det er Teknisk komité (TC) i EPD-Norge som avgjør hvilke PCR-dokumenter som kan benyttes. Ta derfor kontakt med TC for å få svar på spørsmål om spesifikke PCR-dokumenter.

  • Er det obligatorisk å benytte EPD-malen fra EPD-Norge?

    Det er 3 sider i EPD-malen som er obligatorisk å bruke: Første og andre side, samt siste side. For de øvrige sidene er malen et godt utgangspunkt, men det er ikke et krav til at den skal brukes.

  • Jeg skal lage en EPD for en byggevare. Kan jeg bruke karakteriseringsfaktorer fra ReCiPe i stedet for CML?

    For byggevarer skal EN15804 brukes. Dette betyr at det er karakteriseringsfaktorene fra CML, slik de er speifisert i vedlegget til EN15804, som skal benyttes. Årsaken til dette er at resultatene skal være sammenlignbare mellom EPDer. I noen tilfeller kan det være ønskelig at resultatene oppgis ved bruk av ReCiPe eller andre metoder. I disse tilfellene er det mulig å ta med disse i tillegg til CML, men de kan ikke brukes i stedet for CML.

  • Hvordan skal man regne vannforbruk (net water use) i en EPD?

    Vannforbruk (net water use, water consumption) er en indikator som beskriver hvor mye vann som forbrukes. Her er det sentralt å vite at vannforbruk ikke er en miljøpåvirkningskategori, men en del av livsløpregnskapet/livsløpsinventaret. Indikatoren beskriver hvor mye vann som forbrukes, ikke hvor mye vann som brukes. En definisjon som kan være nyttig for å forstå forskjellen, er denne:

    The distinction between water consumption and water use is essential. While the water use covers nearly the whole off-stream water input and all types of water utilisation (e.g. cooling, irrigation etc.), the water consumption describes only the amount of water that is lost to a watershed as a result of the off-stream activities considered. Water consumption is sometimes also called “net water use” or “net water withdrawal”. (Flury et al 2012)

    Vannforbruk inkluderer altså ikke vann som slippes ut igjen til samme vannskille, for eksempel i vannkraftverk eller kjølevann.

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